I don’t have a USB mic either, but like Mike, I don’t believe you should need a preamp.
If the mic isn’t being recognized by the computer, it may be that the USB port isn’t supplying enough current. I had this happen once when I was trying to run an external hard drive through a USB connection. I learned that all USB ports are not equal. USB 3 supplies more current than than USB 2, and if there is more than one port on the same bus, the current gets shared with other devices.
If the mic is being recognized (and the driver is installed), I would suspect it is a problem with the routing through the sound card.